These factors are the basic factors to differentiate customer groups as the customer wants, preferences and usage are usually involve demographic factors. Age is one of the demographic variables that often use to divide the market segment as it helps marketers to understand and keep themselves up to date of the changing life cycle of each generation Dibb et al.
According to Flynn , age is a very important demographic factors that influences on the decision making process on the purchase because natural factor, easy to measure and use it a lot of social science theories.
Kotler mentioned that the different needs and wants are different in different age groups. People of different age have different needs and wants and buy different goods and services over their life time.
Skinner has mentioned that educated customers tend to find more information on the product they are purchasing and demand better quality products and so education becomes one of the factors that influences the decision making process. According to Dunne and Lusch , the accomplishment in the education field is the most reliable index for the income potential, attitudes and the way of spending of a person.
For example, graduate students have different buying behavior comparing to the undergraduate students even though they might stand in the same age group. They are more conscious of the quality, price and services. Hawkins, Best and Coney mentioned the differences in consuming the products and services among the different occupational classes, whether it would be normal grocery like soap or food or even the electronic products like mobile phone or computer.
According to Statt , income is one of the variables that is used to identify the status of a person. It is considered to be one of the most important socio-economic status variable as the quantification can be easily done and compel the entry to some markets.
Peter and Oslon have indicate that the different in the income level of people has influences on the value, behaviors and lifestyles. In agreement with Solomon , the buying power and market potential is also define by income of a person, as people obtain goods and services that they need to show their choices, in which more money will be required to do so. Culture is being learned and has a long effect on the behavior of an individual.
This can be simply defined by set of factors like income, family background and occupation. Solomon However, it is mentioned in Solomon as one wealthy woman observed when she was asked to define social class: Where you send your children to school. The hobbies you have. Skiing, for example, is higher than the snowmobile People from the same family, social class, or income level can have totally different lifestyles.
According to Kotler and Armstrong , the process of buying differs from each product or service, a bottle of shampoo, a tennis racket, an expensive mobile phone or computer and a new car. According to East et.
However, Ehrenberg , cited in East et al. The three models of consumer decision which are used to explain the decision-making in details are:. Brand loyalty is analysed in terms of seven interrelated variables viz. Non-availability of Preferred Brand, e. Usage Period of Present Brand, f. Reasons for Brand Switching, g. Brand knowledge is based on brand awareness and brand image. Creating brand awareness is an important tool in promoting brands with little differentiation such as toilet soaps.
It can play a major role in purchasing decisions. The products with highest brand awareness will usually get more sales. In the urban market segment, it is interesting to note that, higher the level of education level, greater is the brand awareness. About 73 percent of respondent consumers are above graduation. Within this 73 percent, around 32 percent are from professional courses. These 73 percent respondents are aware of more than 7 brands. Majority of them could recall the brand ambassador and punch line of the brands also.
The remaining 27 percent of the respondent consumers are with below graduation level of education. Out of which, around 8 percent of the respondent consumers are below the tenth class. These 27 percent of respondent consumers are aware of only brands. Majority of them, either they could not recall or are indifferent of brand ambassador and punch line. The strength, favorability and uniqueness of associations help build a superior brand image.
A favorable brand image is useful in creating strong brand equity. In this regard, a question was asked with respondents to compare their present brand with other competing brands. Majority of the respondents comprising 64 percent felt that their brand as the best one. Around 25 percent said it gives good value for money. The remaining 11 percent felt it as almost similar with other brands.
At the same time, most of the respondents perceived their preferred brand as the market leader in its category. Although non price factors have assumed importance of late, price still remains a dominant factor influencing sales of a product. Fluctuation of prices will have an impact on continuity of the same brand, i. In this context, it is proposed to analyse the impact of price changes on brand loyalty income wise.
It is seen that at 10 percent price increase, majority of the respondents across all income levels opted for continuing with the same level of consumption. From among the remaining respondents, many decided to reduce consumption. A few respondents wanted to shift to other brands.
Similarly, at 20 percent price increase, 35 percent Low Income , 35 percent Middle Income , and 67 percent High Income respondents opted for continuing with the same level of consumption. Around 34 percent respondents from low income category chose to reduce their consumption.
The corresponding figures for middle income and high income groups are 23 percent and 13 percent respectively. Another 13 percent Low Income , 30 percent Middle Income , 10 percent High Income respondents decided to shift to other brands, while the remaining preferred to search for other alternatives.
At the same time, at 40 percent price increase, 10 percent Low Income , 23 percent Middle Income , and 54 percent High Income respondents chose to continue with the same level of consumption. Another 1 6 percent Low Income , 7 percent Middle Income and 15 percent High Income wanted to reduce their consumption. Further, around 55 percent Low Income , 51 percent Middle Income , and 19 percent High Income respondents desired to change their brands.
The remaining respondents wanted to search for other alternatives. Further, based on the same data, Chi-square test is conducted to identify differences, if any, among the respondents belonging to different income groups in terms of price sensitivity and brand loyalty at various levels of increase in the price of present soap brand.
Calculated values are presented in Table II. It is observed from the above table that at 10 percent price increase, the calculated value of chi-square is less than the table value.
Hence, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences among the respondents belonging to different income groups at 10 percent price increase of the present toilet soap brand. But, when the price is increased to 20 percent or 40 percent above the current price, respondents belonging to different income groups exhibited altogether different behavior.
Store loyalty is regarded as the patronage of customers to a particular outlet.. Store loyalty is influenced by the availability of products and brands at the store and the process involved in customers acquiring them. Brand loyalty is also a major factor in shaping the customers opinions towards a particular store. When a preferred brand is not available in a particular store, consumers will have two options; purchasing the same brand in another shop i. In the present study it is seen that 78 percent respondents preferred to purchase the same brand from another shop.
The remaining 22 percent purchased other brands available in the same shop. Brand loyalty also results in using the same brand regularly over a period of time. It is seen that 51 percent respondents have been using the same brand for above 4 years followed by 21 percent for below 1 year.
Around 17 percent have been using it for years, and the remaining 11 percent for years. However, sometimes consumers change their regular brands and patronize new brands due to various reasons. For this purpose, respondents are asked to identify the most important reason that for brand switching from earlier brand to present one. It is observed that 54 percent respondents cited better quality of new brand as a major reason for brand switching. Another 13 percent wanted to check the new brand.
The relative cheaper price of new brand enticed 10 percent to use the new brand. Customer satisfaction is a positive psychological tendency which the customer gets when he is able to meet the perceived need and expectation with the product he experiences. This satisfaction is related to various aspects such as cost, quality, performance and efficiency of the product. Even if the products are identical in competing markets, satisfaction provides high retention rates.
Higher the satisfaction level, higher is the sentimental attachment of customers with the specific brand of product. In this backdrop, the study intends to measure the satisfaction level of consumers towards their present soap brands. For this purpose, Respondent consumers are asked to rate the performance of their present brand of toilet soap along some parameters such as price, packaging, durability, color, fragrance, freshness, quality, convenience of usage etc.
The responses are classified into three categories namely excellent, above average, and average. It is observed that, respondents are fully satisfied with only premium soaps namely Dove and Pears as they are rated above average or excellent. Cinthol, Mysore Sandal and Superia came next with majority of users rating them excellent or above average, while the remaining rating them average.
The remaining brands are rated just average by the respondents. Cinthol, Mysore Sandal and Pears are the next preferred brands. Another 33 percent purchased when they required the product. This thesis is an attempt to have an integrated and fresh look into the area. When suggesting that people may form buying habit by considering price, such behaviour is not irrational, In the current environmental setup, how consumer perceives price rises and alters their behaviour to insulate themselves from monetary losses, the impact of prices on consumption.
It empirically attempts to verify this strong actual correlation. We examine another research stream whether buyer patronize products that are available, although sufficient literature exist in defining availability and related areas in specific context, however, referring the rich body of available literature, including earlier reviews that had relatively limited perspectives, we hypothesize that availability redefined may have its impact on forming consumption habits for the consumer.
Researcher objective is to present a comprehensive integrated view on research problem to facilitate further research and practice. It will describe the research questions in detail and explain the logic undergirding the theoretical framework of my research. Literature review will derive underpinning framework to establish justification for the study so that research is theoretically fertile and managerially relevant. An elementary observation of this definition contributes a limited wisdom into the complex nature of consumer choice process.
Pre-purchase action includes the awareness and searching information to evaluate different products or services, which may potentially satisfy the need or want. Post purchase behaviour is an action essentially to evaluate the performance of purchased item viz. These behaviour have consequential implications on consumers repurchase behaviour, therefore they are agreeable to marketer, of course in different scale Foxall, Social science researcher have been desiring for far more cultivated and refined theoretical concepts and techniques for analysing consumer behaviour.
This provides for better understanding of behaviour, more accurate indicator of futuristic view and ensures effective discipline on consumer behaviour. Marsden, suggests to elucidate conceptually undergirded framework for consumer behaviour, understanding of fundamenatal paradigms in consumer research and their sequential evolution is important.
Paradigms can be safely studied as hypotheses researcher create to answer what to study and how to go about it Kuhn, As discussed here, a set of dimensions can be classified to portray and explain contrasts in the various views on consumer behaviour. With advent and gradual evolution of discipline of consumer behavior, researcher drew from various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, psycho-sociology to social literature Solomon, The reason for involving different discipline by social science researcher is to approach consumer issues from different angles and dimensions.
Apart from many disciplinary approaches, fundamentally consumer behavior orientation can be safely bifurcated on the basis of their inherent emphasis on intrinsic forces, of which theories are taken from psychology and extrinsic forces have their underpinning in sociology discipline.
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