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Was Queen Elizabeth I right to have Mary Stuart executed?

France, 1548-61

❶Mary being Catholic was also a threat to the throne, Spain used Mary Queen of Scots to their own ends by using her as an excuse to attack Britain see history on the Spanish Armada. Her first husband died shortly after they were married, her second husband was murdered and her third ran off and left her!

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She was held captive for an astonishing 19 years of her life. On 8 February , Mary Queen of Scots was sentenced to death. She was only 44 years old. Mary was beheaded in England because she was found guilty of plotting to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I.

Mary was born at Linlithgow, West Lothian. James V dies and Mary becomes Queen of Scotland. Mary is sent to live in France.

Mary marries the French prince, Francis, after growing up together. Scotland becomes a Protestant country. Mary returns to Scotland. Mary marries her cousin Lord Darnley. Mary is forced to give up the throne for her son James.

Mary flees to England but is imprisoned by Elizabeth I. Mary is thought to be involved in the Babington Plot to murder Elizabeth I and is put on trial.

Mary is executed at Fotheringhay Castle. She was 44 years old and had been a captive in England for 19 years. Mary was brought up a strict Roman Catholic , but by the time she eventually returned to Scotland as Queen, many of her people had become Protestants. Her first husband died shortly after they were married, her second husband was murdered and her third ran off and left her! Mary married her first husband at the tender age of fifteen; he was a year younger!

Mary was considered very beautiful. She was very tall, almost 6ft, had hazel eyes and golden-red hair. Life in France was good for Mary. Brought up with Francis, his siblings and other royal children, Mary was able to enjoy the outdoor life and developed her love of animals, especially dogs.

Mary was said to be well educated. She played the lute very well. Look through the gallery below and see if you can spot the following: Challenge yourself to a quiz on Mary! She fled to England in , hoping for the help of her cousin, Elizabeth I. The two queens never met and Mary remained imprisoned for the next nineteen years. She was executed in , only forty-four years old. By orders of the English government, all of her possessions were burned. This was a feast-day in honor of the Virgin Mary and many took it as a good omen for the princess; for her father, however, it was otherwise.

My dynasty came with a lass. It will go with a lass. He certainly never contemplated that his grandson would one day rule both Scotland and its old enemy, England. But Henry VIII became increasingly erratic and despotic in his later years and continued to send his army north.

In , Henry also encouraged the murder of Cardinal Beaton, a great Scots patriot; the proof — shortly before the murder, he had offered one thousand pounds for expenses associated with a plot to murder Beaton. After this, the Scots were determined to avoid the proposed English marriage. One French observer wrote admiringly: The group arrived in France in August He ordered that she would have precedence over his own daughters as she was sovereign of an independent country and also because she was to wed his heir, the Dauphin.

Mary was 5 when she first met the four-year-old Dauphin, her betrothed husband. According to most contemporaries, they were close and affectionate with one another even as children. They traveled from one royal palace to another — Fountaineblea to Meudon, or to Chambord or Saint-Germain. They were always attended to by a retinue of servants and, even then, Mary had developed a fondness for animals, especially dogs, which was to continue throughout her life.

Mary was also educated in the traditional manner of French princesses; she spoke French and learned Latin, Italian, Spanish and a little Greek. She learned to dance, sing, play the lute as well as converse on religious matters. Her religious tutor was the prior of Inchmahome, a Scottish priest. When she was seven, her mother came to France to visit her; when Mary of Guise returned to Scotland, neither realized that they would never see each other again.

By the age of eleven, Mary was deemed to be as intelligent and well-spoken as a woman of twenty-five by her doting father-in-law. It is worth noting that the Guise family regarded Mary as one of their own; not only was betrothed to the heir to the throne but her mother was a Guise as well. Her uncle, Cardinal Guise, taught her about statecraft, perhaps encouraging her natural feelings of clemency and mercy.

In fact, Mary was to be remarkably free from bigotry during her short reign in Scotland, even towards her subjects of a different religion. Exceptionally tall for a woman in the 16th century, Mary was every inch the regal Queen; she had an oval face, shapely chin, and small mouth which were set off by her golden-red hair, her large forehead, and hazel eyes.

Mary was not always in the best of health but, unlike her husband, there were no immediate concerns for her life. In his opinion — and that of most of Catholic Europe — Mary of Scotland was the next heir to the English throne. Elizabeth I never forgot this first offense and never rested easily while her Catholic relative was alive.

In , Henry II of France, died at the age of Mary and her husband were crowned Queen and King of France. And just six months later, her young husband also died of an ear infection. Mary was understandably devastated by this chain of tragic events. She wrote a poem, in French, about her grief at his death; this is a translation of one verse:.

What was Mary to do next? She left for Scotland, a land rife with religious and civil discord. Without waiting for a safe-conduct pass from Elizabeth, whose ships were patrolling her route, Mary set out for Scotland on 14 August and, five days later, reached Leith, the port of Edinburgh. Mary knew very well that she was succeeding to a most troubled heritage. But after her recent years of loss and grief, she was determined to make a bright future.

In this, she resembled her cousin Elizabeth I. The Scots received their new queen with great joy and celebration. At once, she began to try and help them; within a year of her arrival, one-sixth of all Church benefices was given to the Protestant ministers to relieve their poverty. Of course, such a strategy would lead to more peace and stability within the realm. As a result, she was popular with the common people but not the nobility; she played croquet, golfed, went for hunts and archery practice, sung, danced, and, in general, showed an admirable zest for life.

In , the fourth Earl of Atholl organized a great hunt in honor of the queen and, yet again, Mary charmed all who met her.

Yet she also treaded dangerous ground with her policy of non-discrimination and desire to unify the nation, taking power away from the independent nobles. Though a Catholic, Mary became friends with one of the most learned Protestants of the time, George Buchanan. In the political realm, Mary kept up peaceful relations with France, Spain, and England, though she never met Elizabeth face-to-face.

And her peace with France and Spain was kept without a treaty, though a treaty would have given Scotland some measure of protection against England in the possibility of conflict. However, Mary was aware that any treaty could compromise her subjects, involving them in yet another war and causing strife.

Above all, she wanted peace and prosperity, and she kept Scotland safely distanced from political machinations. As queen, Mary was more than aware that she should marry and provide heirs to the throne. Why Mary wed Darnley remains a mystery. He was superficially charming and, unlike most men, taller than the queen. He was also fond of courtly amusements and thus a nice change from the dour Scottish lords who surrounded her. But he never seemed to care for Mary and sought far more power than she was willing to give him.

When she was six months pregnant in March of , Darnley joined a group of Scottish nobles who broke into her supper-room at Holyrood Palace and dragged her Piedmontese secretary, David Riccio, into another room and stabbed him to death. They claimed Riccio had undue influence over her foreign policy but, in reality, they probably meant to cause Mary, from watching this horrific crime, to suffer a miscarriage, thus losing her child and her own life as well since one usually meant the other in the 16th century.

Mary certainly believed that Darnley, angry because she had denied him the crown matrimonial, wanted to kill her and the child, thus becoming King of Scots. But it is unlikely that, had he been successful, Darnley would have long survived his wife.

Entering the later stages of her pregnancy, she was desperate to escape and — somehow — won over Darnley and they escaped together. Three months later the future James VI of Scotland was born and congratulations came from all over Europe. Still young and healthy after the birth, Mary now had an heir.

This was the apex of her reign, her greatest and happiest moment. Elizabeth of England, ten years older, watched these events with interest for, even then, she knew her own future would be — by choice — unmarried and childless. The nobles who had plotted with Darnley now felt betrayed by him; after all, they had captured the queen and her potential heir, murdered her dear friend, and were in a position to demand anything. Many nobles were implicated, most particularly James Hepburn, the Earl of Bothwell.

He had men with him and asked to escort Mary to his castle at Dunbar; he told her she was in danger if she went to Edinburgh. Mary, unwilling to cause further bloodshed and understandably terrified, followed his suggestions. Mary had refused the proposal then, preferring to marry Darnley, but now she knew herself to be powerless. She also had an infant son to consider. So she consented to wed Bothwell, hoping that this would finally stabilize the country.

Also, Bothwell showed Mary an agreement the nobles had signed which indicated they were prepared to accept him as their overlord. In May they wed at Holyrood and Mary wrote to the foreign courts that it was the right decision for her country.

But the nobles were still not to be trusted. Now, they were angry that Bothwell would be all-powerful and they decided to wage war against him. The nobles demanded that Mary abandon Bothwell, whom they had earlier ordered her to wed.

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Mary was only a baby when she became Queen of Scotland. Sadly her father, James V of Scotland, died when Mary was only six days old. In Mary was crowned Queen of Scotland at Stirling Castle. Mary was known as Mary Queen of Scots because she became Queen of Scotland.

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(–87). The life of Mary Stuart, more commonly called Mary, Queen of Scots, has been a favorite subject of dramatists and poets. She became the central figure in a complex political drama that resulted in her untimely death. She lived in the turbulent period of the Protestant Reformation, and she was a Roman Catholic.

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Plenary lesson on Uniting the UK. Woodlands Junior Homework Help new website. An eyewitness report of the execution of Mary Queen of Scots at Fotheringay Castle and events that took place in London, Scotland, Paris and Spain after the beheading · Mary, Queen of Scots is perhaps the best known figure in Scotland's history. writing phd thesis engineering Mary Queen Of Scots Homework Help dissertation concours assistante sociale digital libraraies dissertation.

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She was also Protestant, which former supporters of her deceased Catholic sister Mary, deplored. Mary Queen of Scots did not have the power or the grace and charm of Elizabeth. Mary was a schemer who wanted England's throne. She married the heir to the French throne, but he died soon after. In my opinion and looking at things the way people thought back then, Elizabeth was completely justified in having Mary executed. Mary was simply too much of a danger to Elizabeth and her reign. We know, for example, that Mary was actively trying to replace Elizabeth as the Queen of England.