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For help with all aspects of fifth grade writing , check out our large selection below. Dissertation Writing Help Writing — Help. The teacher used interactive writing with this feature-identification approach to begin each genre study in her class. Over the course of the year, the walls in her classroom were filled with writing exemplars. Because students had co-constructed these pieces, they had deep understanding of the text. Therefore, these exemplars became powerful student resources that influenced and supported their independent writing.
The Common Core State Standards define three broad writing genres. In second grade, students are expected to state an opinion with reasons. In third grade, they are expected to organize these reasons. Interactive writing is an ideal method for addressing this expansive view of opinion writing because it can provide explicit instruction and guidance for students at each of these developmental shifts, and each new nuance of the genre can be presented with teacher support.
In addition to the four distinct shifts, there are four universal principles that hold for interactive writing across all grades: Interactive writing exemplifies this principle as each lesson component i. For example, in the composing phase of a lesson, the teacher and students work together to negotiate the message they will write. Thus, teachers should avoid eliminating any of the steps in interactive writing, as that would eliminate valuable and unique learning opportunities.
A well-planned interactive writing lesson considers where student writers are and what writing skill or strategy is most needed to propel them further. During the interactive lesson, however, there are always unplanned instructional opportunities. The most effective teachers seize these opportunities and use them to lift the instruction to a new or higher level.
For example, a teacher has planned the instruction around a particular genre and has thought ahead about key principles to highlight. The conversations during Prewriting and Composing are carefully facilitated so that the key writing principles are included. Still, there will be spontaneous and organic aspects of this experience that will be unique and genuine to the interaction.
One never knows in advance the exact wording students will choose for their text and, therefore, cannot always anticipate the conventions and specific aspects of craft that will be relevant to teach. For example, a fourth-grade teacher planned a lesson for her students on how to write an explanatory text. Ahead of the lesson, she identified four important features of how-to texts that she wanted to teach students: She also had preplanned the specific topic that the class would write about i.
The students had been working on this topic in their music class, so she knew everyone would be able to participate in the lesson. Additionally, she considered the word study concepts her students were learning, the conventions that were challenging for them, and how reading their writing aloud would help the editing process.
She was prepared to address these concepts as needed. Finally, she planned to begin the lesson by asking the students to think about their audience, as this would impact the voice they used in their writing. Even with this thorough lesson planning, she could not anticipate the exact words the students would choose in their composition.
Finding the balance between thoughtful planning and organic teaching can be challenging. However, teachers can master this skill as they become more experienced with the method. As a result, they will maximize the potential learning opportunities for their students. The overarching goal of interactive writing is to teach students strategies about writing that they can use themselves. It is the skillful balancing of planning ahead and teaching in the moment that allows teachers to achieve this goal.
Although interactive writing offers a clear structure for a lesson, following this structure alone does not guarantee student learning. Moreover, thoughtful interactive writing instruction does not mean having the students write every letter of every word or attending to every learning opportunity that arises.
The real power comes from instructional decision-making relating to the unique strengths and needs of students at a particular moment in time. The teacher uses this data to select the most appropriate writing skills and strategies for students.
Simultaneously, teachers thoughtfully adjust their interactive writing instruction over the course of the year and across the grades as students develop as readers and writers. They create a developmentally appropriate gradient of text for students in their class by starting more simply in the fall, making adjustments throughout the year based on data and, ultimately, becoming more sophisticated by the spring. Moreover, a writing continuum such as the continua written by Pinnell and Fountas and Spandel in addition to the Common Core standards can guide long-range instructional planning.
Some students will make these connections independently, while others need explicit direction. Hours of coaching and observing teachers in grades 2—5 effectively implement interactive writing has yielded both specific and general guidelines for helping others get started.
The more general suggestions articulated are particularly salient for the interactive writing approach because it is a complex method of instruction that requires teachers to be thoughtful about engaging an entire class of students at varying levels.
However, there are some specific strategies for interactive writing that can assist teachers in executing many of the principles of quality literacy teaching by providing a framework for instruction that encourages them to consider teaching higher-level skills and strategies. Take time in the first lessons to break down procedures to the smallest detail, such as how students need to move up to the easel quickly when it is their turn and stand off to the side when using a pointer to lead the class in rereading.
At this time, it is also important to consider how to organize materials efficiently e. For example, using hook and loop tape to attach a marker to the easel ensures that a marker will always be available.
Familiarity with routine procedures will free the teacher and students from other distractions and encourage them to focus on the important activities of teaching and learning.
Be thoughtful about what time of day to do interactive writing. Interactive writing demands a high level of focus from students and, therefore, it is essential that the students come to each lesson able to be attentive.
First thing in the morning, after recess or lunch, or after an activity that involves movement are a few good choices.
Interactive writing is a community experience with teachers and students working together as a group to produce a written text. Proximity to each other and the place of writing matters. The physical environment is important for bringing everyone together in supporting the shared nature of the task. Teachers have found that some types of materials e. For example, chart paper without lines is problematic because students have difficulty focusing on handwriting without clear lines to guide them.
In addition, multicolored messages are hard to read, and marker choice can become a distraction. This uniformity helps in the readability of the message. In addition to the ruled paper, a sharp black marker is the clearest writing tool because the color is bold and uniform.
For a more colorful presentation, encourage students to illustrate the writing after it is complete using a variety of techniques, such as collage, painting, or drawing. As stated earlier, the most effective interactive writing lessons are those that are well planned.
At the same time, teachers must keep in mind the overarching writing expectations required by the Common Core standards, district or school curriculum, and any specific writing genre unit they may be implementing.
Interactive writing is a teaching approach that can simultaneously advance both the individualized needs of writers and any grade-level goals. With thoughtful advance planning, teaching decisions will be strategic and most effective. Interactive writing lessons must be fast-paced and relatively brief. It is critical to maintain student engagement, which means not only engaging the student who is at the easel or typing but also the students who are sitting and watching.
Some activities for the seated students include writing in the air or spelling words aloud. Additionally, while one student writes, the class might practice a specific convention or craft on individual dry-erase boards. This could be spelling a challenging word, using a new form of punctuation, or brainstorming synonyms for overused words e. The sentence-writing should also go quickly at this level and students are constantly rereading the message as a group to check on sentence fluency, to edit their work, and to hold onto the meaning as they add to text they are writing.
The Common Core State Standards provide clear guidance on the types of writing to teach. Further, they require students to engage in the writing process and to write routinely. The standards have also increased expectations by requiring students to write concisely, deeply and, therefore, with more authority. It is now up to thoughtful practitioners to revisit and refine the best teaching practices to answer the question of how to teach writing in the age of the Common Core.
More voices are urging the utilization of interactive writing, a powerful and instructionally rich teaching practice linked to stronger independent writers i. The thoughtful and intentional shifts articulated above extend the successful implementation of interactive writing far beyond first grade.
The explicitness and efficiency of interactive writing make it a particularly effective teaching practice that can support both emergent and fluent writers. We are appreciative of Roxanne DeStefano, Brendan Newman, and Christy Klump for sharing photographs of interactive writing from their classrooms. Extending Interactive Writing Into Grades 2—5. The Reading Teacher, 68 1 , 33—44 doi: Author Interviews Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews.
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